The story of bohemian glass

published by Lasvit

Path of light • Bohemian Lands in the 18th Century

VI

Bohemian Lands in the 18th Century

Queen Marie Theresa ruled the Austro-Hungarian Empire between 1743 and 1780, becoming the only woman who ever sat on the Bohemian throne. She could never officially become an Empress, although we tend to call her that even today. Her husband, Francis I, the Duke of Lorrain, on the other hand, became the Holy Roman Emperor in 1745. Together, they had sixteen children, of whom nine reached adulthood and seven ascended to European thrones. Marie Theresa turned the existing feudal empire into a centralized state. She introduced mandatory school attendance, built hospitals, army barracks, and manufacturing facilities. Her reforms established many basic state functions that remain in place even today. Through Marie Theresa’s son, Emperor Josef II, new concepts of classicism and truly radical state reforms materialised. He limited serfdom and, in 1781, issued the Patent of Toleration that permitted the Evangelical and Jewish faiths alongside Catholicism. He also closed over seventy monasteries, the property of which was mostly irreplaceably destroyed.

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VI

The Diamond Cut

When at the turn of the 18th and 19th century the clientele began preferring richly engraved lead glass from England to Bohemia crystal, glassmakers from the heart of Europe were not left behind. Since 1798 they had decorated Bohemia crystal with the “English” diamond cut and, during the first third of the 19th century, some glassworks began smelting hollow lead crystal. The diamond cut remains popular today. During the 1860’s it became one of the basic decors of the crystalerie phenomenon – pressed glass, particularly vanity and office items, were produced in the Jizera Mountains in enormous quantity.

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chapter 1 chapter 2 chapter 3 chapter 4 chapter 5 chapter 6 chapter 7 chapter 8 chapter 9 chapter 10

I

The Celts

The heritage of Celtic tribes in Europe.

II

The Period of the Reign of Charles IV

The most significant ruler in the history of Bohemia.

III

Hussite Wars

Reform in the Catholic Church and the fight for religious truth.

IV

Renaissance

The arrival of Renaissance into gothic Prague.

V

Bohemian Baroque

The remarkable imprint of Baroque in the Bohemian lands.

VI

Bohemian Lands in the 18th Century

The transformation of feudal empire into a centralized state.

VII

The Napoleonic Wars

One man’s grand ambitions of overtaking the whole of Europe.

VIII

The Birth of Czechoslovakia

After more than three hundred years, Czechs and Slovaks get the nation-state.

IX

Socialist Czechoslovakia

The political influence of the Soviet Union after WWII.

X

The Velvet Revolution

The postcommunist era and the split of Czechoslovakia.

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VI

Bohemian Lands in the 18th Century

The transformation of feudal empire into a centralized state.

I

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